Photo of Professor Paul Williams

Professor Paul Williams

Associate Professor of Twentieth-Century Literature and Culture


01392 724257

Room 322, Queen's Building

My office hours can be booked online:

My research explores comics and graphic novels from the 1960s to the 2000s and I have recently published a series of essays (in journals such as Textual Practice and the Journal of American Studies) focusing on US comics and graphic novels from the 1970s. My article "Jules Feiffer's Tantrum at the End of Narcissism's Decade," published in Studies in the Novel, was awarded the Javier Coy Biennial Research Award for Best Journal Article 2017-18 by the Spanish Association for American Studies.

My monograph Dreaming the Graphic Novel: The Novelization of Comics (2020), recently published by Rutgers UP, breaks new ground by explaining how graphic novels were produced, distributed, and discussed in North America between the mid-1960s and 1980.

I am in the middle of writing another book, The US Graphic Novel, for Edinburgh UP, which explores the history of US graphic novels from the 1910s to the 2000s. 

Between 2014 and 2016 I was an AHRC ECR Leadership Fellow, supported by a grant of £144,000. During this time I wrote a monthly blog, conducted the research that informs Dreaming the Graphic Novel, and, with the Cartoon Museum in London, curated the exhibition The Great British Graphic Novel (Apr.-July 2016), seen by over 10,000 people.

I have various other research interests, such as:

  • Critical theories of race and ethnicity (my book on Paul Gilroy was published in the Routledge Critical Thinkers series in 2012)
  • Post-apocalyptic fiction (the subject of my 2011 monograph, entitled Race, Ethnicity, and Nuclear War)
  • South-West writers, especially John Betjeman and Laurie Lee
  • The history of Cultural Studies
  • The cultural and political impact of 1970s alternative psychotherapies (I co-authored the article "The Primal is the Political: Psychotherapy, Engagement, and Narcissism in the 1970s" published in American Quarterly in 2018)
  • American Studies - I belong to Exeter's North American and Atlantic Research Group

I teach across many modules, often lecturing on comics, North American literature, or critical theory (Sianne Ngai and the Frankfurt School are particular favourites). I welcome inquiries from potential PhD students on the above (and related) topics.

Research interests

My main research interests are comics and graphic novels. Though I am interested in these forms across the centuries and around the world, I am best known for my work into North American comics between the 1960s and the 1980s. I am also starting to explore 1990s British alternative comics in detail.

I have just finished a major project exploring how long comics narratives were imagined as novels in the United States between the mid-1960s and 1980. This research was published as a series of articles and the monograph Dreaming the Graphic Novel: The Novelization of Comics (Rutgers UP, 2020). This project investigated the graphic novel as a phrase, a concept, and a product brought to market during the turbulent economic conditions of the 1970s, when stakeholders in the US comics world regularly declared the ‘death of the comic book’. One or two graphic novels from the period are well known but Dreaming the Graphic Novel underscores the wide range and volume of graphic novel publishing in the period; graphic novels were produced by established comics companies, the new independents, underground comix publishers, and major publishing houses. Further, I examined the various desires and anxieties bound up with the act of calling a comic a 'novel,' and what that says about 1970s US comics.

I am in the middle of writing another book, The US Graphic Novel, for Edinburgh UP, which explores the history of US graphic novels from the 1910s to the 2000s. The US Graphic Novel underlines the intermediality of the comics created, marketed, and read as novels, occupying as they do an unstable zone between the book and proximate media such as the periodical comic, the poster, the 'zine, and the screen. 

All of this research builds on earlier work I conducted into comics, materiality, and literariness, which can be found in The Rise of the American Comics Artist: Creators and Contexts (UP Mississippi, 2010). I co-edited this collection of essays with my colleague Professor James Lyons.


I have often published books, articles, and chapters on cultural constructions of race, ethnicity and national identity. My work asks: what role does literature, film and popular culture play in producing or fracturing those subject formations? During the early stages of my career, this question was posed in relation to the Cold War, but I have also published on how Hollywood film and hip-hop staged debates about the racial politics of the War on Terror.

One of the enduring touchstones of this research is the critical theorist Paul Gilroy, whose work I find perennially rewarding to revisit. In 2012 I wrote an introduction to Gilroy’s thought in the Routledge Critical Thinkers series, which (amongst other things) tracked how his theories have been challenged and appropriated by scholars working in his wake. This book contained a brief glimmer of a project I hope to pursue at a future point: a critical account of the singer-songwriter Sam Cooke and his position in the US music industry at mid-century, standing at the crossroads of gospel, Black nationalism, and the protest tradition.


I have also produced, with Dr Brian Edgar, a series of articles on radical psychotherapies of the 1970s and their global legacies. These articles are typically centred on Primal Therapy and the activists, musicians, dramatists, and fiction writers that it inspired, though we also consider Nude Therapy, est, the Synanon ‘Game,’ and various types of rebirthing in our research. We also think about the relationship between alternative psychotherapies and radical politics: some therapeutic practitioners saw themselves doing revolutionary work that would contribute to the downfall of capitalism. The therapies we discuss are closely associated with California, but they travelled widely around the world, from the squatters’ community on London’s Villa Road to the coast of County Donegal, and from an ashram in Pune to the Colombian jungle.


Finally, I have a long-standing interest in literature and the South-West, notably two writers at the edge of the literary canon often cast as witty elegists for a vanishing England. I want to reframe these writers as figures engaged with some of the biggest social and political questions of the twentieth century. I contend that John Betjeman used poetry and broadcast media to foster a public debate about the forms of community enabled or prohibited by the built environment. Having consulted Laurie Lee’s unpublished diaries, I argue that his observations as he travelled across the Mediterranean (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus) were shaped by his interest in left-wing politics, and Lee should be seen as a writer grappling with the UK’s changing relationship with the world during the rise of nationalist dictators in the 1920s-30s and the decline of the British Empire after 1945. As part of this, I want to shift attention to Lee’s poetry, drama, and multifaceted cultural practices, such as his work for the GPO Film Unit during World War Two or as Curator of Eccentricities during the Festival of Britain in 1951.

Research supervision

I invite inquiries from potential PhD students regarding the following subjects:

  • Comics and Graphic Novels (especially creators such as Shary Flenniken, Lee Marrs, Samuel R. Delany, and Roberta Gregory, and companies such as Eclipse, Rip Off Press, and Star*Reach)
  • US Literature and Culture (especially 1960s-1980s)
  • Alternative Psychotherapies and their Cultural Influence
  • Sam Cooke
  • Literature and the South-West (especially Laurie Lee and John Betjeman)
  • Paul Gilroy
  • Post-Apocalyptic Representations and Future-War Fiction

If you are interested in doctoral study, please include a brief outline of your project and a copy of your CV with your initial inquiry.

Research students

I have supervised one PhD student to completion as first supervisor, Dr Robert Yeates, who is now Senior Assistant Professor (kōshi) in American Literature at Okayama University (Japan). Dr Yeates’s thesis examined representations of the post-apocalyptic city in emerging media forms.

I was second supervisor to Dr Sarah Daw, who is now Vice-Chancellor’s Fellow at the University of Bristol. Dr Daw’s thesis was published as Writing Nature in Cold War American Literature in 2018.

I have also second-supervised / co-supervised PhDs on

  • Reading manga in translation
  • Toni Morrison’s Beloved
  • Contemporary British poetry and Objectivism

I am currently second supervisor for four PhD students, writing on topics as broad as:

  • The Horned God and environmentalism in fantasy literature and live action role-playing
  • Cultural representations of psychiatrists and psychotherapists
  • The defence of white male privilege in the novels of Saul Bellow, Philip Roth, and John Updike
  • Tea and Chinese American identity in twentieth-century US literature


In Jan. 2010 I wrote a webpage for BBC Wiltshire entitled “Betjeman and Wiltshire.”

I have written several online essays on comics and graphic novels, such as my 1970s Graphic Novel Blog and the article “Literary Impressionism and Chris Ware’s Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid on Earth (2000),” which was published on the Comics Forum website (Oct. 2013).

My online essays on comics were included on The Hooded Utilitarian website’s list of “Best Online Comics Criticism” for 2013 and 2014.


I teach on a wide variety of modules, typically on courses that focus on critical theory, US literature, or twentieth-century and contemporary literature.

I have won or been nominated for various teaching awards at the University of Exeter:


Shortlisted (top five in the University) for ‘Best Research-Led Teaching’ at the Student Guild Teaching Awards.


Winner of the category ‘Most Supportive Member of Staff’ in the Department of English in the Student Guild Teaching Awards.


Winner of the category ‘Best All-Round Lecturer’ in the Department of English in the Student Guild Teaching Awards.


Winner of the categories ‘Tutor of the Year’ and ‘Feedbacker of the Year’ in the Department of English in the Student Guild Teaching Awards. Placed second for ‘Feedbacker of the Year’ and in the top ten for ‘Tutor of the Year’ in the University of Exeter-wide awards.

Modules taught


I completed my PhD in 2005 (University of Exeter) and between 2005 and 2008 I performed various teaching roles for the University of Plymouth, notably as Lecturer in American Studies. I returned to the University of Exeter in 2008, working as a Teaching Fellow (2008-10), Lecturer (2010-14), Senior Lecturer (2014-20), and now Associate Professor of Twentieth-Century Literature and Culture (2020-).

I was awarded an AHRC Early Career Research Fellowship (£144,000) in 2014 for my research project Reframing the Graphic Novel.