Funded by the ERC

EU funded project


Project team

We are a large team comprising of a Principal Investigator, eight Senior Visiting Fellows, four PhD students, a Web Developer, Project Administrator and two Postdoctoral Research Associates. 


Maria Fusaro graduated from the Università di Venezia Ca’ Foscari, and then moved to Cambridge where she completed her PhD in 2002. After a Junior Research Fellowship at St. Hugh’s College at Oxford, she was Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago. At the University of Exeter since 2006, she is presently Professor in Early Modern Social and Economy History and she directs the Centre for Maritime Historical Studies.

Selected publications

She is the author of Political Economies of Empire in the Early Modern Mediterranean: The Decline of Venice and the Rise of England 1450-1700 (Cambridge, 2015); Reti commerciali e traffici globali in eta' moderna (Rome-Bari, 2008); L’uva passa. Una guerra commerciale tra Venezia e l’Inghilterra, 1540-1640 (Venice, 1997). She has co-edited with B. Allaire, R. Blakemore, T. Vanneste, Labour, Law and Empire: Comparative Perspectives on Seafarers, c. 1500-1800 (London-New York, 2015); with C. Heywood and M.-S. Omri, Trade and Cultural Exchange in the Early Modern Mediterranean: Braudel’s Maritime Legacy (London, 2010) and with Á. Polonia, Maritime History as Global History (St. John’s, 2011).

Amongst her articles: ‘Public Service and Private Trade: Northern Seamen in Seventeenth Century Venetian Courts of Justice’, The International Journal of Maritime History, 27 (2015): 3-25; ‘Politics of justice/Politics of trade: foreign merchants and the administration of justice from the records of Venice’s Giudici del Forestier’, (59 pp.) Mélanges de l’École française de Rome, MEFRIM, 126/1 (2014); ‘Cooperating mercantile networks in the Early Modern Mediterranean’, The Economic History Review, 65 (2012); ‘Maritime History as Global History? The methodological challenges and a future research agenda’, in Maritime History as Global History; ‘Les Anglais et les Grecs. Un réseau de coopération commerciale en Méditerranée vénitienne’, Annales Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 58 (2003).

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Sabine Go works at the the School of Business and Economics of VU Amsterdam. Her research is focused on the emergence and development of economic institutions during the early modern times in the Low Countries, in particular marine insurance. Her current research concerns the occurrence and evolution of contract enforcement mechanisms, and the way these have affected economic development in general and behaviour of parties to an industry in particular. Within the AveTransRisk Project, Sabine is concentrating on the Amsterdam Chamber of Insurance and Average in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century. Her research is centered on a unique manuscript, the Statute Book of the Chamber (1598- ca. 1623). This manuscript includes not only formal regulations and how these were adjusted and altered, but also how the regulations were interpreted and applied. By analyzing the regulations and the alterations, the adjudications and the reasoning both, we may for example learn how municipalities copied regulations from other commercial cities, how these specific commercial conflicts were governed in a way that would promote the city’s status as commercial center, and how General Average and marine insurance, both served a purpose as risk management tools for early modern entrepreneurs.

Selected publications

Go, Sabine and Jaap Bruijn, ‘Keeping Risk at Bay: Risk Management and Insurance in Eighteenth century Dutch- Whaling’, in: Brandon, Pepijn, Sabine Go, and Wybren Verstegen, Navigating History: Economy, Society, Knowledge, and Nature. Essays in Honour of Prof. Dr C.A. Davids (Leiden: Brill, 2018), 146-169.

Brandon, Pepijn, Sabine Go, and Wybren Verstegen (eds), Navigating History: Economy, Society, Knowledge, and Nature. Essays in Honour of Prof. Dr C.A. Davids (Leiden: Brill, 2018).

Brandon, Pepijn, Sabine Go, and Wybren Verstegen, ‘Preface’ in: Brandon, Pepijn, Sabine Go, and Wybren Verstegen, Navigating History: Economy, Society, Knowledge, and Nature. Essays in Honour of Prof. Dr C.A. Davids(Leiden: Brill, 2018) xi-xiv.

Go, Sabine C.P.J., ’The Insurance Market in Amsterdam/L’Assurance d’Amsterdam’ in: Catherine Secretan et al (eds), Dictionnaire des Pays-Bas au Siècle d'Or (Aachen: CNRS 2018).

Go, Sabine C.P.J.,’The Amsterdam Wisselbank’ in: Catherine Secretan et al (eds), Dictionnaire des Pays-Bas au Siècle d'Or (Aachen: CNRS, 2018).

Go, Sabine C.P.J., "On Governance Structures and Maritime Conflict Resolution in Early Modern Amsterdam: The Case of the Chamber of Insurance and Average (sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries)."Comparative Legal History 5, no. 1 (2017): 107-124.

Go, Sabine C.P.J. and Th. Allain, 'Les archives de la Chambre des Assurances et Avaries d’Amsterdam, une source méconnue pour l’histoire maritime à l’époque modern’, in: Christian Borde en Eric Roulet (dir.), L'assurance maritime XIVe-XXIe siècle, Aachen, Shaker Verlag.

Go, Sabine C.P.J., 'Amsterdam: emergence, dominance, and decline', in Leonard, A.B. (ed.): Marine insurance: international development and evolution, Palgrave History of Finance Series, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Go, Sabine, e.a., Zekere zaken; Mijlpalen uit de geschiedenis van de coassurantie, Rotterdam 2016.

Go, Sabine, “Agenten en de strijd tegen de concurrentie: buitenlandse maatschappijen op de Nederlandse markt (ca. 1850 tot ca. 1900)”, in: Go, Sabine, e.a., Zekere zaken; Mijlpalen uit de geschiedenis van de coassurantiemarkt, Rotterdam, 2016, 20-25.

Sabine C.P.J. Go, 'The Amsterdam Chamber of Insurance and Average: A New Phase in Formal Contract Enforcement (Late sixteenth and seventeenth Centuries)', Enterprise and Society 14 (3), 511-543.

Sabine C.P.J. Go, “The Amsterdam and Rotterdam Insurance Markets in the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century: Inertia versus Adaptability”, International Journal of Maritime History, XXIII, 2, 85-110.

Sabine C.P.J. Go, Marine insurance in the Netherlands 1600-1870, a comparative institutional approach (Amsterdam 2009).

Press statement

VRIJE Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) released a press statement on 16 January 2018. 'School of Business and Economics researcher Sabine Go has, as part of a team led by Professor Maria Fusaro from the University of Exeter, received an ERC Consolidator Grant to investigate the development of General Average laws and procedures during the Early Modern period.' For more information, see this page

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Andrea Addobbati is Associate Professor (Reader) in Early Modern History at the University of Pisa. His PhD was in Economic History at the Istituto Universitario Navale of Naples, where his thesis examined the Insurance Market in Livorno in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He cultivates an interest in both the history of Italian society and cultural history. He is a member of the Advisory Board for the programme for Doctoral Studies in History and has been repeatedly Primary Advisor and Committee member of the same programme.

Selected publications

Commercio, rischio, guerra. Il mercato delle assicurazioni marittime di Livorno (1694-1795), Roma, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2007, pp. 320.

La festa e il gioco nella Toscana del Settecento, Plus, Pisa 2002, pp. 306.

A. Addobbati, M. Aglietti (eds), La città delle nazioni. Livorno e i limiti del cosmopolitismo (1566-1834). Studi dedicati a Lucia Frattarelli Fischer, Pisa University Press, 2016.

A. Addobbati, R. Bizzocchi e G. Salinero (eds), L'Italia dei cognomi. L'antroponimia italiana nel quadro mediterraneo, Pisa, Pisa University Press, 2012.

A. Addobbati (ed.), Islam e Occidente: la storia e il mondo che cambia, Pisa, Plus 2003.

Italy: cooperation and competition, 1500-1800, in A. Leonard (ed.), Marine insurance: origins and institutions, 1300–1850, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, pp. 46-77.

Until the Very Last Nail: English Seafaring and Wage Litigation in Seventeenth-Century Livorno, in M. Fusaro, B. Allaire, R. Blakemore, T. Vanneste (eds), Law, Labour, and Empire. Comparative Perspectives on Seafarers, c. 1500-1800, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, pp. 43-60.

Una nuova lettura del Dei Doveri dei Principi Neutrali di Ferdinando Galiani, in M. Cini (ed.), Traffici commerciali, sicurezza marittima, guerra di corsa. Il Mediterraneo e l'Ordine di S.Stefano. Pisa, ETS, 2011, pp. 181-219.

When Proof is Lacking: A ship captain's oath and commercial justice in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century, «Quaderni Storici», 3 (2016), pp. 727-52.

Assicurazioni e gioco d'azzardo tra Bordeaux, Londra e Livorno. Le polizze speculative sul commercio franco-caraibico durante la guerra di successione austriaca, «Quaderni Storici», vol. 143 (2013), p. 441-65.

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Giovanni Ceccarelli is Professor of Economic History at the Università degli studi di Parma. He holds a PhD in Economic History from the Università Bocconi of Milano (2001) and is Chercheur Associé at the Université Montaigne-Bordeaux 3. He was visiting Fellow at Princeton University, Department of History (2016/2017) and Directeur d’études invite at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (2017/2018). His research interests include early modern commerce and finance, with a special focus on risk-management contracts; late medieval economic thought; food and retail history with a specific interest on typical products, and food marketing.

Selected publications

A Risky Market: Insurance in Renaissance Florence, Brill, Boston/Leiden, 2020.

“Courtiers et assurances maritimes: les raisons d’une liaison profonde (XIVe-XVIe siècles),” in M. Scherman, A. Wegener Sleeswijk, V. Demont (eds.), Le pouvoir des courtiers. Intermédiation marchande et évolution des pratiques commerciales, XIVe-XVIIIe siècles, Éditions Rue d’Ulm/Presses de l’École normale supérieure, Paris, 2018, pp. 75-86.

“Coping with Unknown Risks in Renaissance Florence: Insurers, Friars and Abacus Teachers,” in C. Zwierlein (ed.), The Dark Side of Knowledge: Histories of Ignorance, 1400 to 1800, Brill, Boston/Leiden, 2016, pp. 117-138.

Typicality in History. Tradition, Innovation, and Terroir La typicité dans l’histoire. Tradition, innovation et terroir, Peter Lang, Bruxelles, 2013 [co-edited, with Alberto Grandi e Stefano Magagnoli].

Un mercato del rischio. Assicurare e farsi assicurare nella Firenze rinascimentale, Marsilio, Venezia, 2012.

“The Price for Risk-Taking: Marine Insurance and Probability Calculus in the Late Middle Ages,” Journ@l électronique d’Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique/Electronic Journ@l for History of Probability and Statistics, 3-1 (2007), pp. 1-26.

“‘Whatever Economics’: Economic Thought in Quodlibeta,” in C. Schabel, (ed.), Theological quodlibeta in the Middle Ages: The Thirteenth Century, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2006, pp. 475-505.

Il gioco e il peccato. Economia e rischio nel Tardo Medioevo, il Mulino, Bologna, 2003 (Collana di Storia dell’economia e del credito, XII).



Dave De ruysscher (MA, LLM, PhD) is a legal historian and a lawyer. His research revolves around the history of commercial and private law until the present day. The focus of his research has thus far been on early modern commercial law, in particular on bills of exchange, partnership and bankruptcy. It has also focused on early modern contract law (assignment, capacity to contract). Dave has written three substantial books, and several peer-reviewed articles and book chapters in English, French and Dutch. In 2016, he was awarded an ERC Starting Grant, on the theme of collateral rights and insolvency. He is currently working in the Department of Public Law, Jurisprudence and Legal History at Tilburg University and in the Department of Interdisciplinary Legal Studies of the Vrije Universiteit Brussels.

Selected publications

DE RUYSSCHER, D., “Bankruptcy, Insolvency and Debt Collection Among Merchants in Antwerp (c. 1490-c. 1540)” in Th.M. SAFLEY (ed.), The History of Bankruptcy. Economic, social and cultural implications in early modern Europe, Abingdon, Routledge, 2013, 185-199.

DE RUYSSCHER, D. en PUTTEVILS, J., “The Art of Compromise. Legislative Deliberation on Marine Insurance Institutions in Antwerp (c. 1550-c. 1570)”, BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review 130/3 (2015), 25-49.

DE RUYSSCHER, D., “Antwerp 1490-1590: Insurance and Speculation”, in A.B LEONARD (ed.), Marine Insurance: Origins and Institutions, 1300-1850, London, Palgrave MacMillan, 2015, 78-105.

DE RUYSSCHER, D., ‘Business Rescue, Turnaround Management and the Legal Regime of Default and Insolvency in Western History (late Middle Ages to Present Day)’ in J.I. ADRIAANSE en J.-P. VAN DER REST (eds.), Turnaround Management and Bankruptcy, London, Routledge, 2017, 22-42.

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Ana María Rivera Medina is Professor of Medieval History in the Medieval History and Historiographic Sciences and Technology department of the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED, Spain). She holds a PhD in Medieval History from the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, and a PhD in American History from the University of Seville. Additionally, she is a specialist in ICTs, online training, digital humanities and e-learning techniques. Her current fields of interests and work are Urban History and Maritime History. She is a member of several Spanish and European research networks and groups, including “La Gobernanza de los puertos atlánticos, siglos XIV-XXI”, “Gis d'Histoire Maritime & Sciences de la Mer”, “Castilla y el mar en la Baja Edad Media”, and CITCEM – Centro de Investigação Transdisciplinar “Cultura, Espaço e Memória”.

Selected publications

Ana María Rivera Medina, ‘Maritime Conflicts and Larceny in the Bay of Biscay from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Centuries’, in L. Sicking and A. Wijffels eds., Conflict Management in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, 1000-1800: Actors, Institutions and Strategies of Dispute Settlement, Leiden, 2020

Ana María Rivera Medina, ‘Economía informal: la baratería en la frontera marítima atlántica medieval’, in M. García Fernández, An. Galán Sánchez and R.G. Peinado Santaella eds., Las fronteras en la Edad Media Hispánica. Siglos XIII-XVI, Granada, 2019, 583-596

Ana María Rivera Medina, ‘Construire des ports, ouvrir des routes: les villes biscayennes en bord de mer au Moyen Âge’, in S. Llinares and G. Saupin eds., Ports nouveaux: création et renaissance du XVe au XXIe siècle, Rennes, 2020,

Ana María Rivera Medina, ‘Les faubourgs à la configuration des espaces portuaires du nord de l'Espagne (XIVe-XVIe siècles)’, in M. Acerra and B. Michon eds., Horizons atlantiques: Villes, négoces, pouvoirs, Rennes, 2019, 377-394

Rivera Medina, Ana María, Digital humanities applied to the historical cartography of the Atlantic ports: ‘E-port. Atlantic Cartography, XIVth–XVIIIth centuries’, in International Journal of Maritime History, 2017, Vol. 29, 1, pp. 182-186.

Rivera Medina, Ana María, “Navegación, comercio y negocio: los intereses vascos en los puertos flamencos en los siglos XV y XVI”, ARÍZAGA BOLUMBURU, B., SOLÓRZANO TELECHEA, J.A. (eds.) Las sociedades portuarias de la Europa Atlántica en la Edad Media. Logroño, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos, 2016, pp. 165-196.

Rivera Medina, Ana María, “Superando fronteras. Mujer y cultura laboral en los puertos del Norte Peninsular, siglos XIV-XVI”, Rey Castelao, O., García-Hurtado, Reyes (eds.) Las ciudades portuarias y su universo cultural. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico, 2016, pp. 17-32

Polónia, Amélia, Rivera Medina, Ana María (Eds.): La gobernanza de los puertos atlánticos, siglos XIV-XXI. Políticas y estructuras. Madrid, Casa de Velázquez, 2016.

Rivera Medina, Ana María: La construcción-reconstrucción de un espacio portuario. El canal y ría de Bilbao en los siglos XIV-XV. La gobernanza de los puertos atlánticos, siglos XIV-XXI. Políticas y estructura. Madrid, Casa de Velázquez, 2016, pp. 171-191.

Rivera Medina, Ana María, Espacios urbano y portuario: las dinámicas de gestión del Canal y Ría de Bilbao, Siglos XIV-XVI, en AZNAR VALLEJO, E., GONZÁLEZ ZALACAIN, R. Castilla y el Mar en la Baja Edad Media. La organización portuaria. Tenerife, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de La Laguna, 2015, pp. 93-122.

Rivera Medina, Ana María, “Los espacios portuarios vizcaínos: mutaciones y adaptaciones de los puertos vizcaínos, Siglos XIV-XVI”, en CEM. Cultura, Espaço & Memória. Porto, CITCEM, 2014, 4, pp. 51-69.

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Luisa Piccinno is Associate Professor in Economic History at the University of Genoa, Department of Economics, where she is currently teaching Economic History and Business History. Her major area of expertise is the economic history of the Republic of Genoa in Early Modern Age. Her research interests focus mostly on maritime history of the Mediterranean (private investments, sea trade, routes, risks) and on the role of the port of Genoa.

Selected publications 

Genoa: a City with a Port or a Port City?, in W. Blockmans, M. Krom, J. Wubs-Mrozewicz (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Maritime Trade around Europe 1300-1600, London, Routledge, 2017.

Genoa, 1340-1620: Early Development of Marine Insurance, in A. Leonard (ed.), Marine Insurance. Origins and Institutions, 1300-1850, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

I trasporti in Liguria all'inizio dell'Ottocento. Nuove dimensioni e modelli operative, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2013.

Rischi di viaggio nel commercio marittimo del XVIII secolo, in M. Cini (ed.), Traffici commerciali, sicurezza marittima, guerra di corsa. Il Mediterraneo e l'Ordine di Santo Stefano, Pisa, Edizioni ETS, 2011.

Trade of precious corals in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages, in Iwasaki N. (ed.), A Biohistory of Precious Corals. Scientific, Cultural and Historical Perspectives, Hadano-shi Kanagawa, Tokai University Press, 2010.

Un'impresa fra terra e mare. Giacomo Filippo Durazzo e soci a Tabarca (1719-1729), Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008.

Economia marittima e operatività portuale. Genova, secc. XVII – XIX, Genova, Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria, 2000.

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Guido Rossi is Reader in European Legal History at the University of Edinburgh. He studied in Italy (Pavia) and Cambridge. Lawyer by training, he is particularly interested in the intersection between legal and economic history.


Selected publications

G. Rossi, Representation and Ostensible Authority in Medieval Learned Law, Frankfurt am Main, 2019

G. Rossi, Insurance in Elizabethan England. The London Code, Cambridge, 2016.

G. Rossi, ‘Early modern maritime insurance between mercantile customs and ius commune: some remarks on the liability of the shipmaster’in L. Brunori, S. Dauchy, O. Descamps and X. Prévost (eds), Le droit face à l'économie sans travail. Finance, investissement et spéculation de l'Antiquité à nos jours. Tome II: L'approche internationale, Paris, Classiques Garnier (Histoire du droit), 2020, 241-263

G. Rossi, ‘The Barratry of the Shipmaster in Early Modern Law: The Approach of Italian and English Law Courts’, 87(2) Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis (2019), 504-574 

Robert Feenstra Prize, 2017-2019

G. Rossi, ‘The Barratry of the Shipmaster in Early Modern Law: polysemy and mos italicus’, 87(1) Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis (2019)65-85

G. Rossi, "The liability of the shipmaster in early modern law: comparative (and practice-oriented) remarks", Historia et ius, 12 (2017). More information.

G. Rossi, "The Abandonment to the Insurers in Sixteenth Century Insurance Practice: Comparative Remarks", in A. Cordes, S. Dauchy, D. De ruysscher, H. Philajamäki eds., Sources of Commercial Law, Leiden, 2017

G. Rossi, "Civilians and Insurance: Approximations of Reality to the Law", 83(3-4) (2015) Tjidschrift voor Rechtsgechiedenis, 323-364

G. Rossi, "England 1523-1601: the beginnings of marine insurance", in A. Leonard (ed.), Marine Insurance: International Development and Evolution (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).


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Dr Marta García Garralón is a Research Associate working on the AveTransRisk Project led by PI, Prof. Maria Fusaro. Marta is focusing her research on Spanish General Average (GA) during the Modern Period. The Spanish case is singular and interesting because it provides an opportunity to extend the scope of the Project’s research onto a global scale, as its analysis will show how the Mediterranean GA tradition was transformed in the Atlantic Ocean during a crucial period of maritime expansion. This provides a window onto the institutional and judicial development of Iberian courts in relation to maritime legislation, contributing both to the centre/periphery debate on these issues, and to the comparative element which underpins the Project at large.

Marta García Garralón also works at Centro Asociado Madrid UNED, where she focuses on the study of institutions linked to the sea, nautical education, seafarers’ association and the maintenance and development of eighteenth century ports across the Spanish Empire through the harbour-masters.

Selected publications

  • M. García Garralón, ‘Echar el punto. Aprendiendo a navegar en las escuelas de náutica de la Armada española del siglo XVIII’, in M.-R. García Hurtado ed., Las innovaciones de la Armada en la España del siglo de Jorge Juan, Madrid 2020, 227-261

  • M. García Garralón, ‘Dinámicas portuarias y marítimas: Capitanías de puerto en el norte peninsular español del siglo XVIII’, en M.-R. García Hurtado ed., Soltando amarras. La costa noratlántica ibérica en la Edad Moderna, La Coruña, 2019, 125-141

  • M. García Garralón, ‘Maritime Empire and Portuary System: The Implementation of the Offices of the Harbour-Master in Hispanic América’, in Inside a Global Trading Network. The Spanish Empire and the World Economy (1580-1820), Seville, 2018, 131-154

  • M. García Garralón, ‘Ciencia e Ilustración en la Armada Española del siglo XVIII. La educación de la oficialidad’, in J. Marchena and J. Cuño eds., Vientos de guerra. Apogeo y crisis de la Real Armada 1750-1823, 3 vols, Madrid, 2018, II: 121-327

  • M. García Garralón, ‘Pilotes et conduite des navires sur les routes maritimes espagnoles du XVIIIe siècle’, in La Real Armada. La Marine des Bourbons d’Espagne au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 2018, 151-174

  • M. García Garralón, ‘The Seamen of the Indies Trade and the University of Seafarers of Seville’, International Journal of Maritime History, 25/1 (2013): 91-102

  • M. García Garralón, ‘El Real Colegio Seminario de San Telmo de Sevilla: un centro para la formación de gente de mar’, Dieciocho Hispanic Enlightenment, 33.1 (Spring 2010), 129-152

  • M. García Garralón, ‘The Education of Pilots of the Indies Trade in Spain during the Eighteenth Century’, International Journal of Maritime History, 21/2 (2009): 189-220

  • M. García Garralón, La Universidad de Mareantes de Sevilla (1569-1793), Seville, 2007

  • M. García Garralón, "Taller de Mareantes": El Real Colegio Seminario de San Telmo de Sevilla (1681-1847). Seville, 2007

Forthcoming articles

  • “Echar el punto. Aprendiendo a navegar en las escuelas de náutica de la Armada española del siglo XVIII”. Universidad de Coruña.

  • “Maritime Empire and Portuary System: the Implementation of the Offices of the Harbour-Master in Hispanic América”, in Inside a Global Trading Network. The Spanish Empire and the World Economy (1580-1820). Universidad de Sevilla.



Dr Giada Pizzoni is a Research Associate working on early modern history of the Mediterranean. Between March 2019 and March 2020, as part of the AveTransRisk project she investigated the British presence in nineteenth-century Malta through the analysis of GA documentation. She looked at the workings of the British Empire and at the complex relationship between the Maltese and the British. It is argued that the British lacked a clear vision for colonial rule in Malta beyond prioritising their military and commercial concerns, and adopted pragmatic solutions to complex issues of law; in the process creating a highly disordered legal system that was open to challenge and dispute.

More broadly, Dr Pizzoni works on European trade and religion. Between 2005 and 2010, she studied early modern history at the University of Perugia. In 2010 as an Erasmus Scholar at the University of Nijmegen, she carried out research for her Master Dissertation ‘Diabolic Unions: Inter-faith Marriages in the Dutch Golden Age’, and matured her interests in the religious discourse and marginalisation in early modern Protestant Europe. In September 2015, she obtained her Doctorate at the University of St Andrews. Her PhD thesis entitled the “Economic and Financial Strategies of the British Catholic Community in the Age of Mercantilism, 1672- 1781” investigated the crucial role of Catholic merchants in the first British commercial expansion. After completing her PhD, she worked as a Teaching Fellow at the University of Warwick. In January 2020, she published her first monograph, British Catholic Merchants in the Commercial Age, 1670-1714.


Book: British Catholic Merchants and their Trading Networks in the Commercial Age (1670-1714), (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2020).

News Platform: ‘Britain’s long history of trying -and failing- to gain independence from European trade partners’, The Conversation UK,February 2019.

Journal of Early Modern History, ‘The English Catholic Church and the Age of Mercantilism: Bishop Richard Challoner and the South Sea Company’, 24, 2020, 111-135.

Seventeenth Century Journal, ‘British Catholics’ Commercial Strategies in Times of International Warfare (1688-1705)’, 1, 32, 2017.

British Catholic Journal ‘Mrs Helena Aylward: a British Catholic Mother, Spouse, Merchant and Entrepreneur in the Commercial Age’, 33(4), 2017, 603-621.

MA Thesis published in E-Journal, Discovery, Invention and Reinvention, ‘Diabolic Unions, Life and Marriage of Catholics in the United Provinces’, University of Newcastle, February 2015.

Journal of Cultural and Social History, ‘A Pass is not denied to any Romanist’, Strategies of the Catholic Merchants’ Community during the early Atlantic World’,11, 3, 2014.

Book Reviews for The Economic History Review, History Journal, The Global Intellectual History Journal.

Essay Collection: ‘Mediterranean Lives: Transcultural Networks in the Early Modern World’in The Cultural and Social History Journal, Routledge, forthcoming, 2021.


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Gijs is a doctoral student working on Professor Maria Fusaro’s ERC funded AveTransRisk project, focusing on the development of GA in the Southern Netherlands in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. By researching GA, he aims to uncover change and continuity in the legal framework in the Southern Netherlands during this period. He uses both economic-historical and legal-historical approaches and is particularly interested in risk management. Within the project, Gijs is primarily based at the Faculty of Law and Criminology at the Free University of Brussels (VUB) under the supervision of Professor Dave De ruysscher, hoping to submit the PhD thesis in spring 2021. Gijs completed both his BA (with Honours) and Research MA (cum laude) at Leiden University in The Netherlands. In the framework of the project, he published a biographical article on the sixteenth-century maritime lawyer Quinten Weytsen and an article on the role of GA in risk management in sixteenth-century Antwerp in the Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History. Two more articles, one on the influence of Castilian normative practice on GA for the edited project volume, and one on Castilian conflict management for the Brill Legal History Library, are projected to appear in 2021 or 2022.

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Jake is a doctoral student based jointly at the University of Exeter and the Università di Pisa. His work within the ERC funded AveTransRisk project focuses on the development of general average in the Tuscan city of Livorno during the early modern period. This cosmopolitan free port will provide insights into the way that differing cultural attitudes interacted to shape maritime law, both in theory and in practice. The presence of large numbers of international operators at Livorno also presents an opportunity to explore the relationship between merchant communities and increasingly intrusive and formidable European states. More broadly, Jake is interested in the interplay between commerce and the world of ideas. This interest runs in both directions, encompassing not commerce’s entry into the lexicon of European political thought, but also the way that prevailing assumptions, debates and forms of knowledge shaped commercial institutions themselves.

Before beginning work on AveTransRisk, Jake studied at the University of Cambridge where he completed a BA in history (first-class honours) and an MPhil in medieval history. His first publication is a contribution to Richard Löwenherz: König, Ritter, Gefangener, the forthcoming catalogue for an exhibition currently running at the Historische Museum der Pfalz, Speyer. He is supervised by Professor Maria Fusaro (Exeter) and Professor Andrea Addobbati (Pisa).

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Lewis is a fourth-year doctoral student within the ERC-funded AveTransRisk project. Working under the supervision of Professor Maria Fusaro and Professor Nandini Chatterjee, his part of the project analyses the role of marine insurance in French political economy through studying Louis XIV's insurance institutions.
His work on the project reflects his broader research interests. These centre primarily on early modern commerce and law in the Mediterranean world, with a particular enthusiasm for the experiences of France, England and the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century.

Lewis previously studied at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he graduated with first-class honours in his BA in 2016. His undergraduate dissertation, entitled ‘The English Levant Company in the age of Ottoman crisis, c. 1620-1660’, was awarded the Alan Coulson Prize for its distinctive contribution to the field of British imperial history. During his time at Christ's - where he was elected to college scholarship - Lewis was also the recipient of the Levy-Plumb Prize and the Mrs Vincent Astor Prize.

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Antonio Iodice is a PhD student within the ERC project AveTransRisk directed by Maria Fusaro. He is based jointly in the Exeter University and the University of Genoa, under the supervision of Luisa Piccinno. He studies General Averages in Genoa during the Early Modern period.

Antonio has achieved his Master’s double degree at the University of Rome “La Sapienza” in partnership with the University of Grenoble “Pierre Mendès-France”. He has achieved his PhD studies in Modern History at the University of Naples “Federico II” with a thesis called “The free port, spreading of an economic model: politics, actors, ideologies, myth. Two compared realities: Genoa and Marseille (1590-1817)”. He has started his new PhD on the General Averages Transaction Risk Project, coordinated by Maria Fusaro, under the guidance of Luisa Piccinno, at the University of Exeter in partnership with the department of Economics in the University of Genoa. He has published: L’istituzione del porto franco in un Mediterraneo senza frontiere, in «Politics. Rivista di studi politici», 5/1, 2017: 19-33; Spazi di visibilità: il cimitero e la “moschea” dei forzati musulmani a Marsiglia, 1691-1790, in Giornale di Storia, 23/2017, online review; La presenza musulmana a Marsiglia tra XVII e XVIII secolo, Master’s thesis published by Il Terebinto, Avellino, 2017. Upcoming publications: General Averages in Genoa: between rules and practice, which will be published in the volume “Sharing Risk: General Average, 6th – 21st Centuries”, edited by Maria Fusaro, Luisa Piccinno and Andrea Addobbati; Managing shipping risk: General Average and marine insurance in Early modern Genoa, written together with Luisa Piccinno, which will be published in a volume in the series “Comparative Studies in the History of Insurance Law” published by Duncker & Humblot and edited by Guido Rossi and Phillip Hellwege; Napoli, un sogno di franchigia, 1617-1739, which will be published in a volume dedicated to Anna Maria Rao, edited by Pasquale Palmieri and others; Politiche di accoglienza e spazi per i mercanti stranieri nel porto franco di Marsiglia, which is being published on the review «Dimensioni e problemi della ricerca storica»; Il porto franco di Marsiglia, Palladium de prosperité (1669-1794), which is being published in the acts of conference Les règles des lieux, held at the Ecole française de Rome in September 2016.

Antonio achieved a Master's degree (double degreee) at the University of Rome 'La Sapienza' in partnership with the University of Grenoble 'Pierre Mendes-France'. Additionally, he recently completed his PhD studies in Modern History at the University of Naples 'Frederico II'. His thesis was entitled The free port, spreading of an economic model: politics, actors, ideologies, myths. Two compared realities: Genoa and Marseille (1590-1817). 

Antonio's forthcoming publications include the following: 

  • L'istituzione del porto franco in un Mediterraneo senza frontiere, in "Politics. Rivista di studi politici", n. 5/1: 19-33.
  • Politiche di accoglienza e spazi per i mercanti stranieri nel porto franco di Marsiglia, which is being published in the review "Dimensioni e problemi della ricerca storica".
  • Il porto franco di Marsiglia, Palladium de prosperite (1669-1794), which is being published in the conference proceedings "Les regles des lieux". This event was held at the Ecole francaise de Rome in September 2016.
  • La presenza musulmana a Marsiglia tra XVII e XVIII secolo, the publication of his Master's thesis which was published by Il Terebinto, Avellino, 2017.  

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Susan Lee is the Project Administrator for the AveTransRisk Project, PI Prof Maria Fusaro. She provides part-time project support to the team working on this EU-funded European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator project, which is researching the development of a legal instrument - general average (GA) – which underpins maritime trade.

Susan has a BA (Hons) in Philosophy & Politics and an MA in Medieval History.

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Ian is a computer programmer who has worked in IT at the University of Exeter since 2003. During this time he has had a variety of roles and been involved in a number of different projects:

  • 2003 (The Telematics Centre) : Creating data rich websites for education and research
  • 2004-2008 (Department of Lifelong Learning) : Web database project work, presenting distance learning material online and teaching programming courses.
  • 2009 (Education Enhancement Unit) - Seconded to develop an online repository for reusable teaching material in higher education
  • 2010-2011 (Integration and Web Services, Exeter IT) : Developing online student assignment submission system (BART) and attendance monitoring database
  • 2012 (The Library / Infrastructure Systems, Exeter IT) - Secondment to the 'Open Research Exeter' project
  • 2013 (Learning & Teaching Systems, Exeter IT) - Secondment to the 'eBART' project allowing students to submit assignments online
  • 2014-2017 (Student Records Systems Team, Exeter IT) - Developing online forms for staff and students in SITS
  • 2018-present (Research IT, Exeter IT) - Offering technical assistance to research projects across the University

Ian has also worked in several tutoring roles with the University of Exeter Department of Lifelong Learning, Computer Science Department and with the Open University, teaching computer programming languages including Java, Visual Basic.Net, Javascript and Python.

Ian is currently working as a Research IT Developer on a number of projects:

  • AveTransRisk
    Database design and development using the Python Django framework.

  • Forms of Labour - Studying the work of women based on historical parish council records
    Access database development.
    Funded by the European Research Council

  • TerraHunting Experiment - Searching our galaxy for earthlike planets
    Python/django development on the target scheduler and data archive.

  • MaxLLG - High frequency magnetics software
    GUI development using Python Flask.

  • Smartline - Exploring the relationships between people, technology and wellbeing
    Database work including amalgamating sensor data for research and analysis.
    Funded by the EU

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