Bombing, States and Peoples in Western Europe 1940–1945

Staff Publications

Claudia Baldoli

Claudia Baldoli and Marco Fincardi. 'Italian Society under Allied Bombs: Propaganda, Experience, and Legends, 1940–1945', The Historical Journal, 52, (4) 2009, pp 1017–1038.

Claudia Baldoli. 'I bombardamenti sull'Italia nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale: la strategia anglo-americana e la propaganda rivolta alla popolazione civile', Deportate, Esuli, Profughe, 13, 2010.

Claudia Baldoli. A History of Italy, (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009).
Intertwining the history of art, literature, food, music and religion, this book explores Italy's history from the Middle Ages to the present. It offers an insight into continuities across past and present day Italian culture, politics, and identity, drawing on a range of recent historiography and contemporary sources.

Claudia Baldoli (ed.). Il seme del caos. Scritti sui bombardamenti di massa (1939–45), (Caserta: Spartaco, 2004).
This book, edited and with an introduction by Claudia Baldoli, compares the attitude of the British pacifist writer Vera Brittain and of the Italian anti-Fascist exile resident in London, Marie Louise Berneri, towards the Anglo-American bombing of Italy and Germany in the Second World War.

Claudia Baldoli. "Exporting Fascism: Italian Fascists and Britain's Italians in the 1930s" (Oxford – New York: Berg, 2003).
This book uncovers the policies of Mussolini's government to transform Italian communities abroad into ‘little Fascist Italies'. It examines Ambassador Dino Grandi's success in the fascistization campaign of Italian emigrants through such means as Italian community newspapers and fascist summer camps and schools, and explores the links forged between Italian Fascism and the British Right.

Stephan Glienke

Stephan Glienke. Die Ausstellung 'Ungesühnte Nazijustiz' (1959–1962). Zur Geschichte der Aufarbeitung nationalsozialistischer Justizverbrechen. (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, 2008).
The book explains the sociological and political ways of dealing with the crimes of Nazi-justice in Western Germany during the outgoing Adenauer-period. Against the background of the political conflict between the two German states, the book explains how cold war determined speech and the expression of opinion and how it limited the representation of the views of political minorities that were struggling for alternative ways of coming to terms with the Nazi-past. It illustrates the clashes between the claims of an open democratic society and a mere authoritarian understanding of democracy. However, it has been the confrontation of authoritarian attitudes and interests that shaped German democracy. This process can be traced down by single stages like the students' movement of the outgoing 1960s, the so-called "Spiegel-affaire" in 1962, the political campaigns of students of the outgoing 1950s and the dispute concerning the dealing with former Nazi-functionaries and crimes committed by Nazi-justice.

"Erfolgsgeschichte Bundesrepublik?"

In recent years historiography has tended to reinterpret German post-war history as an "Erfolgsgeschichte" – a "success-story". The downfall of East Germany's socialist regime that resulted in the longed-for German reunion seems to prove that the course post-war Germany had taken was the right one from the start. But the advocates of this thesis view German history as undifferentiated from its current, but still provisional endpoint. To objectively evaluate Germany's post-war development one should not underestimate the political burden that had been passed on from Third Reich society to post war Germany, incriminating and endangering its democratic development. This book throws light on some aspects of the legacy of the Nazi past that have not previously been studied fully. The authors deal with a variety of aspects, including the sometimes generous reintegration of politically incriminated personnel from the former Nazi regime, public representation of female Nazi-criminals, the impact of omissions in dealing with the Third Reich on the German students movement and German literature, as well as the judicial treatment of Nazi-crimes, and with the latest controversies about the period.

Andrew Knapp

Andrew Knapp. Gaullism since de Gaulle (Aldershot: Dartmouth publishers, 1994); Le Gaullisme après de Gaulle (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1996).
Gaullism shaped the political system of the Fifth Republic more than any other political force. Contrary to many expectations, it showed great resilience in surviving its founder. Based on interviews with some sixty leading Gaullists, from the wartime generation to the future president Nicolas Sarkozy and on internal party documents, Gaullism since de Gaulle was the first general study of Gaullism to appear in over twenty years. Taking the survival of a recognisably Gaullist party as its main theme, it combines a narrative approach (ending, in the updated French edition, with the election of Jacques Chirac to the presidency in 1995), with thematic studies of the party's organisation, electoral base, ideology, and positions in local government as they developed from de Gaulle's resignation in 1969 to the mid-1990s. Its analysis of the tensions between the ambitions of the party's presidential leader and the conservative instincts of its parliamentary and local élites is as relevant to the party of Nicolas Sarkozy as it was to that of Chirac, Pompidou, or de Gaulle himself.

Andrew Knapp. Parties and the Party System in France (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2004).
Parties and the Party System in France is a comprehensive survey of French party politics in the wake of the 2002 presidential and parliamentary elections. The history, electoral support, ideology, and organisation of each party are analysed in chapters covering the Trotskyist extreme Left and the far-Right Front National, as well as Communists, Socialists, and Gaullists, the centre-right, the Greens, and the ‘Hunting, Fishing, Nature, and Tradition' movement. This material is framed by a more general consideration of two major questions. First, why, in a country as politicised as France, have political parties proved so weak in comparison with their European counterparts? This is discussed in the context of both the comparative literature on the development of parties of French historical studies on development of parties. Second, how far did electoral behaviour in 2002, when over half of the electorate either abstained or voted for an extremist candidate at the first round of the presidential election, reflect a deep-seated alienation on the part of French voters with the political system as a whole? Again, this issue is considered in the context both of indications of a specifically French malaise and of comparative studies that suggest that the French case is an extreme example of a widespread alienation of voters from parties and governments that has affected every major democracy since the 1970s.

Andrew Knapp with Vincent Wright. The Government and Politics of France (5th edition, London: Routledge, 2006).
The late Vincent Wright's The Government and Politics of France established itself as the leading textbook in English on the French political system with the publication of its first edition in 1978. Shortly before his untimely death in 1999, Vincent Wright entrusted Andrew Knapp with its revision. As well as incorporating routine updates to take account of recent political developments and new literature, the fourth and fifth editions (respectively 2001 and 2006) have seen included a restructuring of the material on the political executive, completely rewritten chapters on parties and the party system, and a new chapter on France's ambiguous role in the process of European integration.

Andrew Knapp. The Uncertain Foundation: France at the Liberation, 1944–47 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2007).
The wealth of studies on France's war years is not, on the whole, matched by an equally dense body of literature on the complex and rapid transformations undergone by France from 1944 to 1947. Yet this was a critical period for France's internal and external development, in which the pattern for France's position in the post-war world was set, and opportunities for change (notably in the social and economic sphere) both seized, and (in respect of the constitution and party politics) missed. The Uncertain Foundation offers a wide-ranging analysis of the period by bringing together studies by an international team of specialists on different aspects of the Liberation and immediate post-war years. Contributions include Emmanuel Cartier on the constitutional settlement, Olivier Wieviorka on the French political élite, David Goldey on de Gaulle's role in post-war politics, Paul Smith on the Senate, Nicholas Atkin on the Church, Herrick Chapman on the social and economic settlement, Hilary Footitt on the Liberation and women, Martin Shipway on the Empire, Natalia Naoumova on Moscow and the role of the Communist Party, Charles Cogan on the view from Washington, and Philippe Buton on the Liberation and French memory. As well as writing and Introduction and co-authoring Cogan's chapter, Knapp contributed a chapter on Franco-British relations in which he analyses why a unique opportunity to construct a lasting Anglo-French alliance was lost.

Knapp also wrote a chapter on the bombing of Le Havre for this book, but decided that its focus was too local compared with the other contributions. The Le Havre piece, which appeared separately in War in History, was Knapp's first study of the wartime bombing of France by the Allies, and led to his joining the 'Bombing, States, and Peoples' project.

Richard Overy

Richard Overy. The Battle of Britain (London: Penguin, 2000).
The Battle of Britain supplied a core myth for the British wartime and post-war populations of British resistance to Hitler and the heroic solidarity of the British people. This book explores the reality of the battle and the nature of the threat posed by Germany in the autumn of 1940. It shows that British success was due to the fact that a larger stream of aircraft and pilots was made available to the British side than to the German: the 'few' is largely a myth generated by Churchill's rhetoric. Although 'victory' as such proved elusive, the book argues that RAF resistance prevented Hitler from exploiting prospects for a quick conquest if German air power had dominated southern England.

Richard Overy. The DictatorsHitler's GermanyStalin's Russia (Allen Lane, 2004).
There has always been resistance to exploring the Hitler and Stalin dictatorships side by side on the grounds that one was a temporary phenomenon, the other a part of the process of Sovietizing Eastern Europe. The collapse of communism has made it possible not only to get access to a better historical record on Stalin's rule but to be able to see dictatorship as the product of a particular period in modern European history, as old empires gave way to unstable mass politics and enhanced state terror. Dictatorships were able to function for much the same political, institutional and cultural reasons and using forms of governance which had much in common. The Dictators tries to show how it is that dictatorship functions, not to demonstrate that Stalin equals Hitler.

Richard Overy. The Air War, 1939–1945 (2nd Edition, Potomac Books, 2005).
This is the second edition of a book first published in 1980 designed as an introduction to all the dimensions of air warfare during the Second World War, including operations, air force economies, technology, science, intelligence and leadership. It was the first integrated history of its kind but since its publication there has been a large outgrowth of academic literature on air warfare, much of it exploring issues that have little to do with air combat or operations but focus instead on the social, cultural and intellectual dimensions of the exercise of air power.

Richard Overy. Goering: The ‘Iron Man' (2nd Edition, Orion, 1997).
This is a study of life and times rather than a conventional biography, of which there have been a number both before and since the original publication of Goering in 1984. The focus of the book is on Goering's role as commander-in-chief of the German Air Force and as Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan. His role in the economy has usually been neglected but he acted as an important source of authority to push through large scale rearmament and the conversion of the economy to war purposes. There is less here on his role in foreign policy, which has been explored more fully in two German books on Goering by Martens (1985) and Kube (1986).

Richard Overy. Bomber Command 1939–1945 (Harper Collins, 1997) (with an introduction by Sir Michael Beetham).
This volume was produced in conjunction with a Channel 4 documentary ‘Reaping the Whirlwind', screened in 1997. It is based partly on testimony from several dozen pilots and crew of Bomber Command, and contains a large number of original photographs of all aspects of the bombing war. One of the central themes of the book is to show that bombing Germany was only part of what the Command did during the war and that the high losses of men and aircraft can be attributed not only to the offensive against Germany, but bomber action in the Battle of the Atlantic, in minelaying, in the Mediterranean and the bombing of France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy.